< CAIS - Conference 2008 - Proceedings

Mapping the 21st Century Information Landscape:

Borders, Bridges and Byways

The 37th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science held at Carleton University, Ottawa, May 28-30, 2009

Conference Co-Chairs:

Paulette Rothbauer, Siobhan Stevenson and Nadine Wathen

Table of Contents

All papers are in English unless otherwise specified

Al, Rodney, John Huck & Dinesh Rathi.
Knowledge management for a non-profit
This research evaluates knowledge management (KM) practices of a non-profit organization. Researchers conducted a knowledge audit of, and proposed basic KM solutions for, a community bicycle workshop. The findings show that KM and communities of practice may be critical success factors for volunteer organizations or NGOs focused on information sharing.

Black, Fiona, Kathleen Amos, Michael Boyle, Ron Nielson,& Claude Théoret. 
Traditional versus Blogosphere Information Landscapes: The Case of Diabetes and HbA1c
This paper compares two information landscapes in relation to an important measurement – glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) – in the management of diabetes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses, including visualizations with lexical maps, facilitate new understandings about peer-reviewed research and the blogosphere in the evolution of physician knowledge and public opinion.

Bowler, Leanne. 
Health Information on the Web for Canadian Teens: A Survey of Web Portals Designed for Teen Health Information Seekers
This paper reports on an environmental scan of the Web, the purpose of which was to identify and describe portals to general health information, in English and French, designed specifically for teens.

Bowler, Leanne. 
Genres of search: a concept for understanding successive search strategies
This paper introduces Genres of Search, a concept that contributes to our understanding of the successive search phenomenon. The Genres of Search concept is useful for mapping irregularities in successive searching and provides insight into the nature of the tasks involved in the search process.

Budd, John. 
The Problem of Tradition: Teaching Research in the Shadow of the History of Science
There is a research tradition that builds heavily upon traditions that began in the early days of the Enlightenment. One manifestation of the tradition is in the search for, and treatment of, evidence. The paper will present a content analysis of the syllabi of research-related courses in ALA-accredited master’s programs, which demonstrates the reliance on the Enlightenment materialist tradition. Preliminary examination suggests reliance on, among other things, behavioristic observations of information seekers and users, cognitive investigation that is limited to eliminativist or reductionist methods, or constructivist approaches that likewise reduce analytical possibilities.

Cavanagh, Mary. 
Agents of practice at the public library’s reference desk
The face to face interactions of reference librarians and reference assistants are studied from a theoretical practice perspective. Rather than reinforcing professional boundaries, the results of this analysis support reference practice in public libraries as a highly relational activity where reference “expertise” retains a significant subjectivist, relational dimension.

Cedeira Serantes, Lucia. 
“I’m a Marvel girl”: exploration of the selection practices of comic book readers
Based on Catherine Ross’ findings about avid readers, this study examines the way four comic book readers choose the graphic novels that they read for pleasure. Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the qualitative interviews: the diverse roles of comic book stores; the connection with other media formats; and the accessibility of the format.
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Crispin, Jennifer. 
Negotiating the social organization of school library work: an institutional ethnography
This institutional ethnography starts from the standpoint of a school librarian to examine how school library work is coordinated and explained by social institutions. Areas of focus include the work of accounting for materials, the work of accounting for students, and the work of understanding and negotiating schedules.
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Gainor, Rhiannon. 
Leisure Information Behaviours in Hobby Quilting Sites
This qualitative study examines hobby quilting Web sites and blogs, asking how creativity, virtual community, and expressed motivations are involved in creation of information resources. Findings are placed with serious leisure, ELIS, and interface design contexts, indicating ways to motivate employees in work settings to contribute to electronic information repositories.
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Gao, Yijun. 
From Editors' Choice to Readers’ Favorites: Analyzing Server Logs of China's Biggest Online Newspaper
This study analyzed the Web server logs from the People's Daily Online and revealed some interesting findings: Pageview numbers of the mportant news in editors’ mind on the most obvious sections of the homepage, are not significantly different than those of the "common" news put on the less obvious sections.
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Gazo, Dominique. 
The missions of autonomous public libraries from the point of view of Quebec municipal elected officials: an analysis of discourses
The principal objective of this thesis is to understand, via the discourses, the point of view of the Québécois municipal elected officials on the missions of the autonomous public libraries as well as the distance between these discourses and the practices of the libraries at the local level.
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Gerolami, Natasha. 
The Library in the Control Society
The philosophic work of Gilles Deleuze is used to highlight how the public library has changed from an institution for disciplinary purposes to an organization where control is distributed over a network. There is no ideal traditional library to which librarians can return. Instead we must develop new tools to resist new forms of domination.
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Given, Lisa M., Stan Ruecker, Martina King, Moyra Lang & Myra Slade. 
Health Information Online: An Examination of Consumers’ Experiences in Managing Complex Health Regimes
This paper reports on a study designed to build and test a health information system relevant to Canadian consumers’ information needs. The results of 15 qualitative interviews outline key issues that inform the delivery of online health information in a global context and the design of effective web tools.

Haigh, Maria. 
Bridging Before and After: Library Science’s Soviet Legacy in Ukraine
My paper examines the current state of library and information science in Ukraine, framing this in the context of its historical legacy as a part of the former Soviet Union. It is based on extensive research using Ukrainian, English and Russian sources as well as considerable time spent observing conditions in Ukraine and interviewing local librarians and information science educators across the country as part of my Fulbright fellowship there.

Hill, Heather. 
Power relationships of public library management outsourcing in the United States
Privately managed public libraries are a newer phenomenon in the United States. A critical discourse analysis of the decision making process, encapsulated by the discourse in the progression of contracting documents and public discourse surrounding the phenomenon, provided a way to explore ideas of power and hegemony.

Hook, Sheril, Jeff Newman, Sarah Fedko, Cristina Severin & Julie Hannaford. 
Creating Modifiable Learning Objects for Online Modules
Showcase of a cross-discipline, community driven tool that allows faculty, teaching assistants, or librarians to create content that illustrates discipline-specific research and writing practices. Authors can contribute new content, use existing content or edit content, thereby contributing to a database of quality collaboratively developed material to enhance student learning.
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Hutton, Gregory. 
Scientific Grey Literature in a Digital Age: Tracking its Use and Influence in an Evolving Information Economy
This paper outlines methodologies to improve understanding of the influence of grey literature published in print and digital formats. The study is based on analyses of citation data regarding the UN-based Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection collected from Web of Science, Google, and Google Scholar.
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Johnson, Catherine & Matthew Griffis. 
The public library and social capital: Examining the role of public libraries in building social cohesion
This paper examines the role of the public library in building strong communities. It reports on a study that asked patrons through interviews and questionnaires about their use of the library and explores whether this use has had an effect on the creation of both community and individual social capital.

Julien, Heidi & Shelagh Genuis. 
Experiences of the Teaching Role: A National Survey of Librarians
This paper reports results from a national online survey exploring librarians’ experiences of their teaching roles. Triangulated with interview and diary data from earlier phases of this research, the paper highlights the joys and challenges experienced by library staff as they negotiate new expectations in a rapidly changing work environment.

Julien, Heidi, Brian Detlor, Alexander Serenko, Rebekah Willson, Maegan Lavallee. 
Information literacy learning outcomes: critical factors in the learning environment
A significant challenge facing Canadian business schools is how best to work with librarians to incorporate information literacy instruction in curriculum and program designs. This study addresses the question: what is the interplay between factors of the learning environment and information literacy program components on business student learning outcomes?

Keenan, Andrew. 
Deconstructing the Information Age in Information Literacy
This presentation explores the role of the Information Age in Information Literacy. The Information Age asserts that the recent proliferation of information and communication technology has fundamentally altered our society. Librarians have responded to the Information Age in part through developing Information Literacy. This project critically examines the relationship between the two concepts.

King, Martina M.. 
Visual Communication: A Study of Library Virtual Reference Icons Online
Libraries use icons (visual representations) on their websites to draw attention to features and services. How are library staff to evaluate their icons? This session reports the results of a thesis study which examines and assesses a selection of virtual reference icons from Association of Research Library websites.

Kirkpatrick, Kelly, Kristen Holm & Dinesh Rathi. 
Managing Knowledge in a Medium Sized Public Library
This study explores the issues in managing knowledge, the knowledge sharing needs of the employees and strategies and technologies adopted to facilitate knowledge organization and sharing in a medium sized public library. The findings would contribute towards better managerial practices and policies, and advancement in developing better knowledge management systems for libraries.

Kloda, Lorie & Joan Bartlett. 
Rehabilitation therapists’ clinical questions in the context of evidence-based patient care: An exploratory study
In this qualitative study, rehabilitation therapists (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and speech-language pathologists) working in stroke care will be asked about their clinical questions. The goals of the study are: to identify common characteristics of questions, to develop a typology of questions, and to uncover reasons why certain questions are pursued.
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Large, Andrew, Jamshid Beheshti, Ian Clement, Marni Tam & Nahid Tabatabaei. 
Visualizing a Hierarchical Taxonomy in a Children’s Web Portal: User Evaluations of Two Prototypes
Elementary students use the Web to find information, but can encounter problems with keyword searching. An alternative is to choose terms from a taxonomy (subject directory), but students may then encounter problems in locating a term within the taxonomy. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of a conventional, hierarchically displayed taxonomy with a display of the same taxonomy using information visualization techniques. The evaluations were undertaken by students from grade-six (11 to 12 years’ old) and are part of a larger study on the application of information visualization techniques to interfaces targeted at children.

Li, Ping & Lin Wu. 
Exploring the Real World: Medical Librarians' Involvement in Supporting Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Practice
This paper reports the results of an online survey that explores medical librarians’ roles and activities in supporting EBM practice. More than 500 medical librarians replied to the survey. Data analysis reveals that librarians have been taking on various EBM-related responsibilities both routine by nature and project-related.
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Lilburn, Jeff. 
Globalization and the Changing Educational Landscape: Implications for Academic Libraries, Librarians, and Library Users
This paper responds to recent work exploring the relationship between the political economy of globalization and institutions of higher education. It considers implications of this relationship for the library as a unit within the university and for the role librarians play as teachers helping to produce informed and active citizens.

Luyt, Brendan. 
The Socio-economic Context of Journal Impact Factors
This paper argues that the rise of the JIF is a result of the perceived value of quantification measures in modern society and the restructuring of capitalism. Two key implications of this acceptance are explored: an increase in global academic dependency and a lessening of autonomy in the scientific field.
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Magnuson, Lauren. 
Folksonomies: Meaning, Discourse, and Information Retrieval
This paper explores the potential usefulness of user-generated folksonomy tagging in an academic electronic resource collection. A hermeneutic conception of meaning is applied to information retrieval (IR) technology, which emphasizes the understanding of IR systems as mechanisms for communication. The results of a survey exploring undergraduate tagging behavior are discussed.
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McKenzie, Pamela J.. 
Mapping the informing relationship: pregnant women’s representations of midwives as information sources
Caring relationships are recognized as important resources for information seekers. I consider how nine pregnant women map their relationships with their midwives as they evaluate them as information sources. Data come from interviews. Women described the relationship as a trajectory, beginning with the “idea” of a midwife. As women get to know their midwife, they are able to draw on a set of resources, including the relationship itself, as informative. These resources are not static but are re-negotiated on an ongoing basis. A single encounter therefore maps both to the trajectory of the relationship and to a broader discursive community.

McNally, Michael. 
The Influence of Washington’s Farewell Address on the American Intellectual Property Debate in the Late 19th Century
A content analysis of the Congressional Record and U.S. diplomatic correspondences relating to the negotiation of the Paris and Berne Conventions in the late 19th century reveals that American officials advanced business interests in accordance with Washington’s Farewell Address ahead of the constitutional mandate to promote the arts and sciences.
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McTavish, Jill, Roma Harris and Nadine Wathen. 
Searching for Health: The Topography of the First Page
In this study we have examined the topography of webpages that users gain access to through Google keyword searches, for five major health conditions. Implications of our findings will be discussed in light of late modern information seeking practices, which serve not only to keep users informed, but to mediate their personal identities.

Mounier, Evelyne& Céline Paganelli. 
Practices and uses of specialized information among medical specialists: the place and role of information organization
This article compares the results from two studies of medical specialists: one with physicians working at the CHU de Grenoble, and the other with physicians working in private practice. Observed are the reasons for searching information, the impact of continuous education, and the resources used.
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Oliphant, Tami. 
Contested Knowledge and Information Behaviour: Treatments for Depression
A wide variety of treatment options for depressives have been developed by both the conventional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) sectors. Using data collected from three online newsgroups as well as in-depth interviews, I analyze how people use information when making or justifying claims, or making decisions, about treatments for depression.

Paganelli, Céline & Evelyne Mounier. 
Stratégies informationnelles en milieu professionnel : du réseau personnel à la Toile /
This article focuses on the link between individual expertise, the context of the task, and information searching strategies in a professional setting. Interviews with bank employees show that the types of research and the choice of resources depend on the goals and constraints of individual as well as corporate activities.
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Peekhaus, Wilhelm. 
Primitive Accumulation and Re-appropriation of the Information Commons
This paper suggests that LIS might benefit from critical political economy as a way of theorizing and responding to enclosures of information commons. The autonomist Marxist re-invigoration of ‘primitive accumulation’ offers a register for apprehending contemporary erosions of the commons. Autonomist Marxism also helps conceptualize resistance to enclosures.
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Pollak, Angela. 
“Like a Boxer in a Boxing Match – Punch Drunk”: The Information World of a Master Electrician
This case study examines information behaviours of a master electrician in Southern Ontario. Complex information structures consistent with Chatman’s theories of Life in the Round (1999) and Information Poverty (1996), as well as Social Dilemma/Collective Action (Smith 2005) theories emerged that challenge the way we think about information in this blue collar work environment.
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Pyati, Ajit K.. 
Understanding the Roles of Public Libraries in (Inter)National Development: Lessons from India
This paper focuses on the roles of public libraries in overall plans and schemes for Indian national development, focusing on issues of power and representation. The roles of state and non-state actors in Indian public library development are explored within the context of larger international information policy and development debates.

Rathi, Dinesh. 
Automatic Routing in Triage Process
This study investigates and characterizes the impact of different features of email on effective routing of email to domain experts. The findings of the study would help in understanding how machine learning techniques such as classification could be applied effectively to develop better automatic triage process in digital reference service.

Rathi, Dinesh. 
Decision making complexities in the information era
This study explores the parameter space and associated decision making complexities in the context of text-mining of email-based data. The findings show the impact of different parameters on clustering and classification. These results would help in developing more robust algorithm so that impact of some parameters on mining results is minimized.

Rothbauer, Paulette. 
Rural Youth, Reading and Libraries: Fostering a Place Ballet
This paper explores the place of the rural library in the context of reading habits of teens. Using Derek Seamon’s concept of the place ballet, four themes are discussed: daily reading practices, the visibility of the library, the Internet as a reading site and the temporal constraints on leisure reading.

Shiri, Ali. 
An Examination of User Queries in a Nanotechnology Digital Library
This paper will report an investigation into the search behaviour of nanotechnology researchers within an interdisciplinary digital library. Specific issues examined were: search characteristics of users, including the session length, query characteristics, search types and the use of query operators, and query and search strategies.

Smiraglia, Richard P.
Redefining the “S” in ISMIR: Visualizing the Evolution of a Domain
Music Information Retrieval is an evolving and highly productive domain. In 2008 the domain assumed the formal structure of a named society of scholars. Visualization of the domain occurs through author co-citation analysis of conference papers and journal articles from 2000 to 2008.
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Spiteri, Louise F.
Social Cataloguing Sites: Features and Implications for Cataloguing Practice and the Public Library Catalogue
International Standard Bibliographic Description elements were used to evaluate the contents of 16 social cataloguing sites’ records. The heuristics Communication, Identity, and Perception were applied to the sites’ social features. While record content was poor, the social features create a community of interest where people can share their reading interests with one another.
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Stevenson, Siobhan. 
Is there such a creature as the post-Fordist public library? The value of French Regulation Theory for questions in public Policy
“Dismantling our fortress that was the reference desk and our citadel known as the circulation desk” these are some of the steps public libraries are taking in the name of customer service. The purpose of this research is to answer the question: “if the public library blossomed in the era of Fordism, what are the identifying features of the post-Fordest library?

Strotmann, Andreas, Dangzhi Zhao & Tania Bubela. 
Field Delineation or Field Delimitation for Mapping Sciences?
While there may be uses for strict field *delimitation* (“finding its exact limits”), we argue that science mapping (especially for research policy studies) may be better served by a field *delineation* (“constructing a rough sketch”) that exhibits a high degree of network fidelity to support reliable network measures.

Varnam, Christine, Peter Organisciak, Kathleen Reed, Alicia Hibbert & Diana Keto. 
Invasion of the And-Ors: Applying Active Learning Principles in the Development of a Flash-based Boolean Search Tutorial and Game
Describes an interactive, engaging, web-based tutorial and Alien Invaders-type game to teach Boolean searching techniques. The tutorial was designed using the personas method, which emphasizes diverse needs and learning styles of users. Active learning principles were used throughout to take advantage of the dynamic and interactive capabilities of Web media.
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Wathen, Nadine, Sandra McKeown. 
Is Information Enough? eGovernment and the Information Response for Women Experiencing Domestic Violence
This paper reports on a recently completed study that examines the Canadian eGovernment response to providing information to women exposed to domestic violence. Our overarching question was “if an abused woman went to her province’s government website for information and help and used common search strategies, what would she find?”
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Wicks, Don A. & Daniel Roland. 
Qualitative Research in the New Century: Map Points in Insider Research
This paper employs an “insider research” approach to qualitative research wherein the researchers share a point of identification with the participants. It focuses on “Map Points” in the conversational journey of each case study. These points describe situations where either the researcher or the informant took the lead in guiding the journey in a particular direction.
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Zhao, Dangzhi & Andreas Strotmann. 
Mapping knowledge networks of stem cell research: First- and all-author co-citation analysis of a highly collaborative field
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